In 1944, during the height of the Second World War, Roosevelt was given a memorandum by Henry Morgenthau, the Secretary of State, stating Morgenthau’s proposal on how to treat the inevitably defeated Germany. The first half of the plan, regarding territorial divisions, appeared rather less harsh than what ended up happening: Germany was to lose East Prussia, the Saar region, half of Silesia and was to be divided into three parts.
Morgenthau, in order to remove what he saw as the ‘problem of Europe’, demanded the complete destruction of Germany as a state. The entire nation was to be completely stripped of all industrial output: any industrial plant or facility, no matter how small, was to be dismantled or scrapped, mines were to be dismantled and wrecked. People with technical knowledge were to be ‘encouraged’ to migrate as far as possible.
Morgenthau had proposed that the entire country be reduced to a Medieval condition. Roosevelt enthusiastically backed the idea.
For two long years, Germany starved under the rebranded Morgenthau Plan and the Allies dismantled most traces of heavy industry from Germany.
General Lucius Dubignon Clay said: There is no choice between being a communist on 1,500 calories a day and a believer in democracy on a thousand.
For two years, Lucius Clay and his backers fought against JCS 1067. Their efforts were finally rewarded on 10 July 1947, with the repealing of JCS 1067 and its replacement by JCS 1779, focused on European economic recovery. On the same day the ‘Morgenthau Boys’ collectively resigned.
The horror of the Morgenthau Plan and its thirty million dead, supported to varying degrees by Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, Churchill and many others, and halted by the efforts of Lucius Clay, George Marshall, Cordell Hull, Henry Stimson, Anthony Eden, Lewis Douglas, Lewis H. Brown, Mackenzie King, Herbert Hoover and many other forgotten heroes, was finally no more.
The Earth's electrified upper atmosphere (the ionosphere) experiences a lot of natural variation, changing with the days and from season to season. The ionosphere can also be affected by certain big events, including solar flares, volcanic eruptions, lightning—and the massive bombs dropped on Germany during World War II. Those bombings produced shockwaves strong enough to weaken the ionosphere right near the edge of space.
That's the conclusion of a new study by University of Reading researchers, just published in the journal Annales Geophysicae. More than a historic curiosity, the finding matters because ionospheric disturbances can disrupt key communications technology, including GPS systems, radio telescopes, and radio communications.
The air raids conducted by both the Germans and Allied forces in the 1940s were designed to take out critical industrial and political infrastructure—and if civilians happened to be in the line of fire, so be it. (The Allied bombing of Hamburg in 1943 reportedly left 45,000 dead.) Intensifying the fear of dying among residents was as key to the strategy as the physical destruction wrought by the massive bombs dropped. The largest bombs, weighing as much as 10 tons, were powerful enough to blow the roofs off buildings, sending intense shockwaves not just through the streets but into the skies above.
Michael Hudson in a preface to the 2017 German edition of the 1972 classic Super-Imperialism. Hudson reflects on the will of the US to bend major institutions to its favor.
Why the British said no to Europe
Vladimir Sergeyevich Vakhmistrov, of the Russian Airforce's scientific test institute, started work in June 1931 on combinations of fighters rigidly
Gestapo, la banalità del male
Si schierò contro il fascismo. E per questo ha appena ricevuto il premio Lazzati. "Sognavamo un'italia diversa, ma questo è un paese che si accontenta di tirare avanti"
The crushing Greek debt could be canceled the way it was made - by sleight of hand. But saving the Greek people and their economy is evidently not in the game plan of the Eurocrats. Greece's creditors have finally brought the country to its knees, forcing President Alexis Tsipras to agree to austerity and privatization
In World War II, India fielded the largest-ever army of volunteers. But while the rest of the world reduced the contribution of these 2.5 million men and women to a footnote, India just wrote it...
Members of the British royal family were far closer to Nazi Germany during World War II than has previously been recognise, Russian and Spanish archives suggest.
During World War II the US military forged partnerships with industry and academia that translated laboratory findings into working products at an unprecedented pace.
My personal favorite political-risk-analytics firm, Stratfor, does some great geopolitics analysis. Their intro-level article on Russia, which we might call "Russian Geopolitics 101", is actually publicly accessible:
Operation Bagration - the Soviet destruction of German Army Group Centre - was, arguably, the single most successful military action of the entire war. This vital Soviet offensive was launched just after Allied troops had landed in Normandy, and it is symptomatic of the lack of public knowledge about the war in the East that whilst almost everyone has heard of D-Day, few people other than specialist historians know much about Operation Bagration. Yet the sheer size of Bagration dwarfs that of D-Day.
Speaking to Radio Sputnik, Spanish historian Daniel Trujillo Sanz observed that he is seeing a "disturbing" revision of history in Western countries regarding the Second World War, with facts "being distorted in such a way as to make Russia out to be an old enemy of the West.
Nei nuovi 171Quaderni neri187 del filosofo l'interpretazione choc della Shoah
Winston Churchill is remembered as a highly successful politician, but his record at the ballot box was far more chequered than many might think. Churchill, in fact, failed to win a seat in five of the
Noi italiani sulla buona tavola siamo suscettibili. Anche perché è uno di quei campi nel quale di solito ci prendiamo un po' di rivincite rispetto a popoli più ricchi o efficienti ma incapaci di cuocere la pasta in un modo sensato. Ed è per questo che la tesi sull'origine della carbonara rilanciata da un recente
Thomas Piketty's Capital in the 21st Century is a bestselling economics tome whose combination of deep, careful presentation of centuries' worth of data, along with an equally careful analysis of where capitalism is headed has ignited a global conversation about inequality, tax, and policy. Cory Doctorow summarizes the conversation without making you read 696 pages