Rifkin is persuaded that this paradigm is the key to greening and decarbonating our societies: "The IoT infrastructure offers a realistic hope of quickly replacing fossil fuel energies with renewable energies and slowing climate change."rnThe dead-end of consumerismrnrnWhile Rifkin's predictions seem to follow the course of history, Pitron soberly and methodically tempers them: "Digital technology requires considerable amounts of metals: every year, the electronics industry consumes 320 tonnes of gold and 7,500 tonnes of silver; it accounts for 22% of the world's consumption of mercury (some 514 tonnes) and up to 2.5% of lead. The manufacture of computers and mobile phones alone gobbles up 19% of global output of rare metals like palladium and 23% of cobalt production". Yet, "at current rates of production, the recoverable reserves of 15 or so base and rare metals will run out in less than 50 years; for five other metals (including iron, which is abundant), this will occur before the end of the century."rnrnPitron points out that "the manufacture of a two-gram chip creates two kilograms of waste material, in other words a 1 to 1000 ratio of material produced to waste generated."rnrnLike Rifkin, those who see the digital revolution as the key to ecological transition are victims of a collective blindness that is leading humanity into a dead end: "They don't want to know because a connected world is preferable to a clean planet." Indeed, the book pours scorn on an energy transition that does not call into question our energy needs. "The manufacture of a single solar panel, due in large part to its silicon content, generates more than 70 kilograms of CO2. With PV [photovoltaic] capacity estimated to increase by 23% annually in the coming years, solar power will produce an additional 10 gigawatts of electricity a year. This means 2.7 billion tonnes of carbon released into the atmosphere, equivalent to the annual emissions of 600,000 cars." The examples keep coming. Overall, "sustaining the change in our energy model will require a doubling in rare-metal production roughly every 15 years, and extracting more minerals in the next 30 years than humanity has extracted in the preceding 70 000 years."rnrn legislation will have to change, as will individual and collective behaviour to conserve and recycle the resources currently on our continent.rnrnPitron does not hesitate to raise the question of inequality when it comes to ecological transition. Although the fight against climate change is frequently the subject of public debate, out of ignorance, its potentially redistributive aspects are never discussed. Yet "the energy and digital transition is a transition for the well-off: it cleans up well-to-do city centres to make up for its very real impacts in areas that are poorest and furthest from view." Globally, "hiding away the dubious origin of metals in China has enabled green and digital technologies to enjoy a good reputation. It's undoubtedly the most incredible greenwashing operation in history."rnrnIn short, and this is pretty discouraging, Pitron's work corroborates the results of models created almost 50 years ago. But these were widely ignored when new models were devised which are still used today by economists and governments to justify the productivist and consumerist policies on which our development model is based.